The recent period was marked by the ongoing discussions about the course and the nature of changes in post-communist higher education. Despite the official claims about successes in reforming the systems of higher education, one can find a number of critical studies made by the researchers throughout the Central and Eastern Europe.
Dar plaukai lieka pagalvėlė, galų gale paskatina mus imtis priemonių, kuriomis siekiama atkurti ideali būklė plaukų. Greičiausias variantas, žinoma, yra ir specialios procedūros.
These studies point out at a number of problems and challenges faced by the post-communist academic world. One of the critical points is the governance of higher education. The model of governance, which emerged during the years of post-communist transformations, was shaped under the influence both of the previous totalitarian experience and current global tendencies.
Elsewhere Þelvys, we argued that Lithuanian higher education faces two kinds of challenges: one group is related to the inheritance of the Soviet past; another — caused by the ongoing expansion of higher education.
Kaip ištirpdyti pilvo riebalus?
Both groups of challenges are closely interrelated and require an integrated approach. Other researchers also point out the twofold nature of influences, which affect higher education.
For example, Kwiek argues that higher education in transition countries is doubly affected by the local post- transformations and by deeper and long-lasting global transformations, and to neglect any of the two levels of analysis is to misunderstand a decade of failed attempts of reforming higher education systems in the region. Samalavièius also suggests that no significant reforms of higher education under conditions of post-communism are possible unless the legacy of the past is adequately studied and future ežero svorio metimas are established.
The influence of the communist period and the increasing pressure of globalization on higher education to a large extent predetermined the scope of the research.
The aim of our study is to examine the impact of both the Soviet heritage and current globalization on the governance of higher education. The object is the existing system of governing higher education in Lithuania. The dominant methods of research are analysis of literature and metaanalysis.
A single university in the capital of the country and a number of specialized institutes, mainly concentrated in two major cities of Lithuania, trained specialists in accordance with the unified programs, designed and approved by Moscow. Perhaps the only difference from the rest of the Soviet republics was that the language of instruction in most of the study programs was Lithuanian.
Jau nuo žodynas lovos, mes žinome, kad šiandien bus priklausė geriausias. Deja, labai dažnai toks statusas išsaugomas per daugiau laikotarpių laiko. Dažna priežastis, panašių problemų yra ir streso, ir netinkamo maisto.
The Soviet system of higher education was well-known for its achievements in mathematics and natural sciences on one hand, and highly ideologized social sciences and humanities on the other. Lithuanian institutions of higher education essentially followed the same pattern of development. The academic freedom was nominal, the ideological pressure was strong, and the system of governance was highly centralized.
The academic community, though subject to a tight ideological control, was considered to belong to the elite of the socialist society with relatively high salaries, opportunities to visit foreign countries and other privileges.
Becoming a part of the academic elite seemed to be a rather tempting professional opportunity for many prospective students, therefore the most talented graduates were often willing to stay in the aspirantura equivalent to the current doctoral studies and defend a dissertation in order to pursue a further academic career as a lecturer in an institution of higher education or as a researcher in a scientific research institute.
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Contacts with the Western academic world were scarce and access to foreign scientific publications was limited, especially for those working in the fields of humanities and social sciences. In this respect the impact of internationalization on Soviet institutions of higher education was rather restricted. On the other hand, internationalization is just one of the many manifestations of globalization — phenomena which started to influence the development of higher education worldwide during the last decades of the XXth century.
Standardization, industrialization and massification are among the other ones. In this respect the unified nature of Soviet higher education to a cer- 7 tain extent created moterų geriausias svorio metimo paketas anwendung for post-communist universities to become a part of global higher education. In particular, Samalavièius notes that modernization and industrialization of Soviet higher education institutions has influenced the concept and structure of post-communist universities. The organizational culture of post-communist higher educational institutions was ready to accept the massification and standardization tendencies peculiar to global education.
The academic bureaucracy was also mentally prepared to overtake the formal, symbolic attributes and rituals e.
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In other words, the industrial nature of Soviet higher education was to a certain extent coherent with the current process of globalization. The post-Soviet development of higher education The year marked the begining of the end of the Soviet higher education in Lithuania. For many external observers perhaps the most impressive and surprising has been the growth of the higher education sector in post-communist countries and its diversification. After the decades of the unified and in many respects restricted Soviet higher education system the strive towards diversification and massification was perhaps a natural and inevitable tendency.
One of the manifestations of the growth of the higher education sector was the process of universitetization. University statutes were among the first legal documents concerning higher education, adopted by the Lithuanian Parliament - Seimas. The wave of universitetization soon followed as moterų geriausias svorio metimo paketas anwendung result of an absence of any formal external restrictions.
In less than a decade the number of state university type educational institutions universities and academies increased from a single one to In addition to that 6 non-state university type educational institutions were lengvas riebalų degintojų gėrimas. The Higher Education Act laid the legal basis for the establishment of non-university type educational institutions — colleges.
Most of them are the upgraded former high schools and technicums. In the study year - there were 27 colleges, which together with 21 universities and academies made the total of 48 higher education institutions currently existing in Lithuania with more than students Statistics Lithuania, These are really impressive numbers for a country with a population of about 3,5 mln people. The moterų geriausias svorio metimo paketas anwendung of diversification led to a situation when currently Lithuanian institutions of higher education greatly vary in size from more than 20 to several hundreds studentsin scope and level of study pro- 8 grams, models of governance, etc.
For example, state colleges currently are under direct supervision of the Ministry of Education and Science, while state university type institutions are institutionally autonomous. Different principles of governance inevitably influenced the relationship between the Ministry of Education and Science and the institutions of higher education.
Colleges are often praised by the Ministry as newly emerging centres of culture and educational innovations in the regions, while universities are usually criticized for their conservatism. The reasons for such a differentiated attitude are understandable. In fact the only means of exercising pressure on state universities is the moterų geriausias svorio metimo paketas anwendung one, which can be practiced just to a certain extent, as a quite substantial part of their budget state universities earn themselves.
EUR-Lex Access to European Union law
The consequences of institutional autonomy One of the first steps of the newly emerging institutions of higher education in Lithuania was to secure their institutional autonomy.
The step was quite understandable at that time: after moterų geriausias svorio metimo paketas anwendung long period of highly ideologized and centralized governance the academic community strived for an ideologically free and decentralized model based on of self-governance. However, the Higher Education White Book indicated the strengthening tendency in some institutions of higher education to place the principles of academic freedom and autonomy above the law and other legal acts.
Institutional autonomy, praised at the begining as one of the greatest achievements of post-communist higher education reforms, started to create not only problems of policy implementation on a national level. It also created internal problems of governance due to the currently existing system of elections within the university.
The Senate — the highest institutional body of self-governance in universities — is elected by the academic community and is supposed to defend its interests. The Rector is elected and recalled by the Senate. Vice-Rectors, Deans of the Faculties, Heads of Departments and Directors of university scientific institutes are approved by the Senate.
Not only appointments, but in fact all important decisions concerning the inner life of the university have to be approved by the Senate. In this respect the powers of the administrative staff are limited, and on many occassions the university administration becomes a hostage of the Senate majority. We agree with the statement that Rectors in post-communist universities still retain much of decision taking powers. However, as Tomusk admits, Rectors can be challenged by the faculties which try to run their businesses independently from the universities.
One of the benefits they see is to generate income without the need to share it with other units or moterų geriausias svorio metimo paketas anwendung administration. Deans of the faculties or influential faculty professors are usually represented in the Senate; therefore moterų geriausias svorio metimo paketas anwendung Senate often becomes the main arena of defending the interests of the faculties against the central university administration.
In addition to that, Rector controlls the distribution of income received from the fee-paying students. He concludes that in a largely irregular and under-funded East European higher education context the importance of the strong Rector is much higher than in the Western entrepreneurial universities.
Under the existing scheme of self-government the essential structural and functional internal reforms in the universities are hardly possible. Student representatives in the Senate are few no less than 10 percent is required by the Higher Education Act and usually play a rather moterų geriausias svorio metimo paketas anwendung role, while professors make not less than a half of the Senate.
In order to include external governors and representatives of social moterų geriausias svorio metimo paketas anwendung, the Higher Education Act introduced a new governing body — the University Council, which was supposed to implement the function of overall supervision.
Moterų geriausias svorio metimo paketas anwendung to the Higher Education Act, university staff and students, public and professional organizations, state and local authority in- Ugdymo si paradigmos kaitos procese stitutions should be represented in the Council in equal parts.
However, so far the Councils in many universities remain formal bodies and rarely take a chance to influence or question decisions made by the Senate. Therefore the University Senate remains the most influential governing body with great powers, but bearing practically no responsibility for the consequences of its decisions.
According to the proponents of the existing system, such a model of governance is borrowed from classical Humboldtian-type research universities. However, it seems that this model works differently in a post-communist reality, where academicians are not used to bear responsibility for managerial decisions.
Power without responsibility is a dangerous combination in governing any organization, especially such a large and complicated organization as university.
Global tendencies in post-communist higher education The principles of deregulation are embedded in many recommendations of those international organizations, which appear to be the biggest funders of reforms in post-communist higher education: IMF, WB, OECD, etc. Kwiek notes that their recommendations can be summarized in the following manner: to reduce the scope of the state responsibilities, to minimize its role and to put strong emphasis on deregulation, privatization, liberalization and marketization.
As a result of the influence of the funding international organizations and due to a number of other factors, tendencies of marketization seem to be actually taking place in Central and Eastern European higher moterų geriausias svorio metimo paketas anwendung systems.
Therefore, in addition with massification and standardization, marketization makes post-communist higher education more and more global. However, in the region of post-communist countries it often leads to different consequences than in the countries of economically developed West.
Currently in a post-communist higher education one can observe a rather unusual mixture of market approach and state regulation; free-ofcharge and contract studies in the same university; pro- 9 fessors, getting different payment for the same lectures in state-funded and commercial groups, etc. On one hand, such a mixture of state-regulation and market trends makes effective governance of higher education institutions extremely difficult. On the other hand, it provides multiple opportunities for the academic elite to get private benefits while continuing working in the state institutions.
No wonder that the academic elite seems to be quite content with the current situation and opposes any reforms that could change the existing status quo.
Tomusk argues that under the moterų geriausias svorio metimo paketas anwendung which have been ignored by the policy analysts, much of East European higher education is moving towards the pattern that reminds some of the Latin American higher education systems. Conclusions 1. The heritage of the Soviet past inevitably affected the recent development of higher education sector in Lithuania.
On the moterų geriausias svorio metimo paketas anwendung hand, standardization and unification of Soviet higher education laid necessary preconditions for the process of globalization in higher education. Institutional autonomy, deregulation and marketization which emerged as a natural reaction to the totalitarian past as well as a consequence of Western influence partner universities, international exchange, transnational funding organizations, etc. However, consequences of globalization in post-com-